You've probably heard of "clean eating" before but aren't exactly sure what it entails or how to even get started. Eating clean means keeping food simple. It means focusing on choosing nutrient-dense foods in their natural state (or close to it), rather than eating highly processed foods with added chemicals and preservatives. Follow these simple steps to get started on cleaning up your diet.
Become an eager label learner
DO: Get in the habit of reading nutrition labels thoroughly. Even products generally perceived as healthy may contain unnecessary ingredients. “I know the idea of reading every single label might sound tedious, but it’s so necessary,” says chef Devin Alexander of “The Biggest Loser.” “I’ve found an extremely common brand of tea that puts modified cornstarch in their tea bags, and I’ve found lime-and-salt microwave popcorn that’s less healthy than what you’d get in the movie theater.”
DON’T: Buy anything with a long list of ingredients you can’t pronounce — the shorter the list of ingredients, the better.
Re-evaluate your process
DO: Cut down on highly-processed foods. This is one of the first steps to eating clean. “It’s important to reduce, not necessarily eliminate, your intake of processed foods that are loaded with chemicals, preservatives and dyes, as well as foods high in sugar and poor-quality oils,” says Jared Koch, founder of Clean Plates.
DON’T: Discount all processed foods. For instance, some foods, like bagged spinach and pre-cut vegetables are minimally processed simply for convenience, and other foods are processed to enhance nutritional value, such as added-fiber breakfast cereal and milk that’s fortified with calcium and vitamin D. Reading the nutrition label should provide a good overview of how heavily processed the product actually is.
Plant the seed for cleaner eating
DO: Gravitate toward a plant-based diet. “This doesn’t mean you need to be vegetarian or vegan, but it does mean you should eat lots of vegetables, along with fruit, nuts, seeds, herbs and spices, to ensure you are getting lots of nutrients,” says Jared Koch, nutritional consultant and founder of Clean Plates. For an easy guideline, the U.S. Department of Agriculture recommends filling at least half of your plate with fruits and vegetables at every meal.
DON’T: Forget to incorporate lots of proteins if you’re cutting out meat. Plant-based foods especially high in protein include chia seeds, hemp seeds, lentils and adzuki, cannellini and kidney beans.
Eat whole grains
DO: “Choose sprouted or whole grains over processed grains,” suggests chef Devin Alexander, New York Times best-selling author of eight healthy cookbooks. Harvard researchers actually recommend devoting a quarter of your plate at any meal to whole grains, thanks to studies that show reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes and colorectal cancer. Ways to up your whole-grain intake include eating quinoa, brown rice and whole-grain.
DON’T: Be fooled by confusing packaging. Buzzwords like “multigrain,” “100-percent wheat” and “stone ground” do not necessarily denote whole-grain foods. Also, look for these five USDA guidelines: whole grain as the first ingredient, no added sugars in the first three ingredients, the word “whole” before any grain ingredient, a carbohydrate-to-fiber ratio of less than 10:1 and a stamp reading “whole grain.”
Choose high quality meats
Though many envision a vegetarian diet in association with clean eating, meat can certainly be part of your diet if enjoyed responsibly. DO: “Choose higher-quality meats, ideally pasture-raised and grass-fed, or at the very least free of hormones and antibiotics,” urges founder of Clean Plates Jared Koch. Case in point: A study published in the Nutrition Journal in 2010 found that grass-fed beef had less cholesterol-elevating saturated fatty acids and was higher in precursors for vitamin A, vitamin E and cancer-fighting antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids than grain-fed beef.
DON’T: Overdo it and avoid highly-processed meats (bacon and sausages for example).
Take natural sugars
DO: If you're going to add sugar to your diet, do it by way of natural sugars -- honey, agave, etc. Most of us however are overdoing it when it comes to added sugars and could benefit from cutting back altogether. The 2015 Dietary Guidelines recommend that limit added to sugar to less than 10 percent of your total daily calories.
DON’T: Consume artificial sweeteners, such as sucralose or aspartame. A 2014 study published in Nature found that consumption of such non-caloric artificial sweeteners could cause abnormal metabolism and a higher risk of diabetes. Choose natural alternatives like honey, molasses, agave nectar and maple syrup.
DO: Maximize your fresh-food shopping efforts by checking dates before buying and reaching for the freshest fare at the grocery store. “So many people don’t buy healthy food because they claim it goes bad more quickly,” says chef Devin Alexander. “It does spoil more quickly than processed foods, but if you look at dates and buy the products all the way in the back of the refrigerator, your food will last much longer.”
DON’T: Throw food away without knowing the difference between the “sell by” and “use by” labeling. A 2013 report from the National Resource Defense Council found that 91 percent of consumers mistakenly threw food away based on the “sell by” date, even though the food was still safe to eat.
Create well-balanced plates
DO: Make sure to eat a mix of lean proteins, healthy fats and complex carbohydrates at mealtime. Examples of complex carbohydrates include legumes, starchy vegetables and whole-grain cereals, while lean proteins include lean meats, egg whites, beans, legumes and poultry. To get your dose of healthy fats, choose nuts, avocados and olive oil.
DON’T: “When sitting down to dinner, don’t eat bread and a starch and have a glass of wine and a dessert,” advises “The Biggest Loser” chef Devin Alexander. “One of these, rather than all four, along with plenty of lean protein and vegetables, would create a balanced meal.”
Drink plenty of water
DO: Drink plenty of water throughout your daily routine. Experts recommend drinking six to eight 8-ounce glasses, or about two liters, every day. The amount you need varies from person to person, depending on activity level and climate. If you’re not a big fan of H2O, you can up your intake of foods that are 85 to 95 percent water, such as celery, tomatoes, oranges and melons.
DON’T: Quench your thirst by overdoing it on alcohol. Some clean-eating aficionados cut all alcohol from their diets, while others swear by smart moderation. If you do choose to indulge, consider doing so only on special occasions or choosing a glass of healthful red wine.
Include healthy fats
DO: Keep in mind that not all fats are to be avoided. “Fats are much maligned, but they are essential for life,” says Dr. Michael Fenster, cardiologist and author of “Eating Well, Living Better.” Healthy fats -- like those from nuts, avocados and olive oil -- help to keep us satisfied, stabilize our blood sugar levels and lower cholesterol levels.
DON’T: Mistake “low-fat” for healthy. A study published in November 2006 in the Journal of Marketing Research found that low-fat labels actually caused people to eat more because they decreased food-related guilt and adversely affected perceptions of the appropriate serving size.